Closing date: 11:59 on 31/03/2022
Interview date: W/C 25/04/2022
Start date: 1/10/2022

Supervisory team
Director of Studies
Dr Tory Milner, Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences, University of Huddersfield Contact details: v.milner@hud.ac.uk; Please see https://pure.hud.ac.uk/en/persons/tory-milner

Supervisors
Dr Matt Hill, Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences, University of Huddersfield
Dr Ryan Wilson, Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences, University of Huddersfield
Mr Bede Mullen, Slow the Flow, Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire

The project is in association with Slow the Flow (https://slowtheflow.net/) and the National Trust (https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/hardcastle-crags) who have jointly installed 100+ NFM wood structures in the Hebden Water and Crimsworth Dean Beck catchments in West Yorkshire. The supervisory team hope to acquire further funding to extend the MRes into a PhD project if the successful student wishes to study further, but this is dependent of a successful application. However, there is no obligation by the successful candidate to study for a PhD.

Research context
Natural flood management (NFM) wood structures are often used to reduce the rate of water flowing from headwaters to lowland systems (Dadson et al., 2017; Lane, 2017). Wood acts as a ‘leaky barrier’ by retaining water upstream of the structure and ‘slowing the flow’ downstream (Grabowski et al., 2019). NFM wood structures comprise a wide range of different designs and permeabilities (Wen Lo et al., 2021), and the type of design can include structures fully or partly spaning the channel with differing degrees of contact with base flows and the stream bed (Wen Lo et al., 2021).

Installation of NFM wood structures can have strong effects on local geomorphic, ecological and biogeochemical procceses (e.g. Gurnell et al., 1998, Pilotto et al., 2014; Short et al., 2019). The formation of pools (ranging from plunge, underflow or deflector pools), sediment storage, and changes in bank morphology are common geomorphic effects of NFM wood structures. These geomorphic effects drive changes in hydraulics, which partly diversifies local habitat heterogeneity (Corenblit et al., 2007).

The introduction of in-stream wood can also cause ecological benefits for aquatic macroinvertebrates, fish, amphibians, and riparian vegetation. Submerged wood surfaces often contain a high diversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates (Benke and Wallace, 2003). Wood structures provide a food source for xylophagous species who ingest wood fragments as part of their diet (Steedman & Anderson, 1985; Collier and Halliday, 2000). Community composition on wood surfaces are often different from invertebrates inhabitating nearby inorganic substrates (Shields et al., 2008; Dossi et al., 2018). NFM wood structures that fully span a channel can also alter water table levels in the river banks and in the riparian zone as soils become more saturated with water (Gurnell et al., 1995). The increase in water table levels may cause riparian plant communities to be dominated by water-tolerant species (Wen Lo et al., 2021).

Aims and Objectives
The main effects of NFM wood structures in decreasing downstream flood risk and altering local geomorphology are well known. However, less research has examined the ecological effects of NFM wood structures. The aim of this MRes project is to examine the ecological effects of NFM wood structures on aquatic macroinvertebrates and terrestrial plant diversity in the riparian zone. The following objectives are:
1. Identify a) aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity and community composition, b) the hydraulic and sedimentary of different meso-habitats, and c) terrestrial vegetation diversity in the riparian zone in 3 headwater streams in Hebden Water and Crimsworth Dean Beck catchments prior to and after installation of NFM wood structures*.
2. Characterise the longer term ecological effects of NFM wood structures by examining aquatic macroinvertebrate diversity between newly created and established NFM wood structures.

*Dr Milner has carried out aquatic macroinvertebrates and terrestrial vegetation sampling on 3 headwater streams in the Hebden Water/Crimsworth Dean Beck catchments in October 2021.

Indicative methodology
This study will be conducted on multiple headwater streams in the Crimsworth Dean Beck and Hebden Water catchments, in West Yorkshire, UK. Crimsworth Dean Beck is a tributary of Hebden Water, which is a principal tributary of the River Calder. Both Crimsworth Dean Beck and the Hebden Water are upland in character and are situated 190.5m above sea level. The catchment area is 36km² and the land-use is predominantly woodland (61.9%) and grassland (29.6%), with other minor land-uses of arable/horticultural land and urban areas (<2%; National River Flow Archive, 2021).

Aquatic macroinvertebrate and riparian vegetation sampling
Aquatic macroinvertebrates and terrestrial vegetation have been sampled on three headwater streams in the Crimsworth Dean Beck catchment in October 2021. The hydraulic and sedimentary characteristics of different mesohabitats has also been measured. Five NFM woody dams will be installed in late October/early November 2021 by the National Trust and Slow the Flow on one of the headwater streams that has been sampled. The NFM woody dams will extend from the channel to bankside habitats to encourage overland flow across the nearby hillslope, and thus increasing water levels in the soil and influencing terrestrial vegetation (see Figure 1 for design features). Further aquatic macroinvertebrate sampling, terrestrial vegetation surveys and mesohabitat mapping is planned for April and July 2022. In addition to sampling the ecological effects of newly created NFM wood structures, there is an opportunity to assess the impacts of established NFM wood structures on aquatic macroinvertebrates and terrestrial vegetation.

Details of the studentship
During the period of your studentship, you will receive the following:
 A tax-free bursary of £15,560 for a period of 1 year.
 A fee-waiver for 1 year (worth £4650).
 £7000 to cover costs and expenses related to your research, including equipment, travel, and conference attendance costs.
 Use of the Research Student Study Space in School of Applied Sciences Research School.

You will be expected to play an active role in the life of both the Research School and of the School of Applied Science by assisting with some field and laboratory practicals. You will also be given opportunities to gain experience in learning and teaching within the School of Applied Sciences under the guidance of your Director of Studies.

Qualifications needed
Essential:
Applicants should have or be able to evidence:
 A First or Upper Second (2.1) Honours Degree, or expect to receive one by January 2022 in Geography, Physical Geography, Environmental Science, Environmental Management, Ecology, or a related discipline.
 A sound understanding of, and an interest in freshwater ecology, river science, freshwater ecosystems, and/or hydrology as reflected by the choice of modules at university and/or your current position.
 A driving licence, a willingness to travel to sites and an enjoyment of fieldwork in variable weather conditions.
 Proficiency in oral and written English.
 Ability to work independently and contribute to a team.
 Commitment and an enthusiastic approach to completing a higher research degree.

Desirable:
 Experience of collecting and identifying macroinvertebrates to family level.
 Experience of surveying terrestrial vegetation.
 Experience of using statistical techniques to analyse hydrological and ecological data.

Please note we are not expecting candidates to have had experience sampling both aquatic macroinvertebrates and terrestrial vegetation. Training and assistance will be provided to the successful candidate. There is flexibility in the project for the successful candidate to suggest and carry out their own interests.

The Interview
The interview will provisionally be held on w/c the 25th of April 2022. All successful applicants will be interviewed. You will be asked to read a research paper that Dr Milner has supplied in advance, and answer questions on the topic, methodology, and findings of the research paper. You will also be asked to provide an example of your written work (e.g., a dissertation) ahead of the interview.

For further information or an informal discussion on this project, please contact Dr Tory Milner (Director of Studies) via email at v.milner@hud.ac.uk

To apply for the position, please see https://research.hud.ac.uk/research-degrees/how-to-apply/?rpid=00007934_2717
Completed application forms should be submitted by 11:59pm on Thursday 31st March 2022. Shortlisted candidates will be asked to attend an interview the w/c 25th April 2022.

Le contenu de cette offre est la responsabilité de ses auteurs. Pour toute question relative à cette offre en particulier (date, lieu, mode de candidature, etc.), merci de les contacter directement. Un email de contact est disponible: v.milner@hud.ac.uk

Pout toute autre question, vous pouvez contacter sfecodiff@sfecologie.org.